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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作(zuo)者: 人气:1899

高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心是(shi)一种可以(yi)对加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件进(jin)行高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的一种工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具能够(gou)如(ru)此快(kuai)速(su)(su)的进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)除(chu)了因为(wei)高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)密(mi)度(du)和成熟的技术之(zhi)外更多的还是(shi)得利与(yu)其优秀的数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong),在(zai)当前的机(ji)床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)行业中(zhong)为(wei)视线高速(su)(su)稳定的高精(jing)度(du)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)运行快(kuai)速(su)(su)且(qie)功能强大(da)的计算机(ji)数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong)是(shi)必(bi)不可少,需要注(zhu)意(yi)的是(shi)高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的数控(kong)系统(tong)(tong)必(bi)须能够(gou)足够(gou)快(kuai)地(di)处理(li)数控(kong)程序代码段(duan)以(yi)保持程序中(zhong)规(gui)定的进(jin)给速(su)(su)度(du)。

 

高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心在(zai)实际(ji)运行中(zhong)(zhong)是计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)用于测量一次工(gong)(gong)作台的(de)实际(ji)位置并(bing)发出一次进(jin)给命令所(suo)用的(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian),对(dui)于伺服周期和代(dai)码段处(chu)理(li)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)是计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)的(de)两个重要参(can)(can)数(shu)(shu)及其(qi)概念。计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)处(chu)理(li)并(bing)完成一条加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)指(zhi)令代(dai)码段规定的(de)位移所(suo)花费的(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)。 计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)的(de)这两个参(can)(can)数(shu)(shu)对(dui)于高(gao)速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心来说非常重要,因(yin)为他(ta)们将(jiang)决定机(ji)床的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)速(su)度和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度。在(zai)这里,精(jing)度意味着(zhe)在(zai)采用线性插补时(shi)(shi),用直线段来逼近(jin)零件轮(lun)廊所(suo)允许(xu)的(de)最大(da)误差。

 

我们可以看(kan)到在高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)必须保(bao)证(zheng)(zheng)形成精确的(de)加(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹(ji)(ji),另(ling)外,在用直线段来逼近零(ling)件轮(lun)廊时(shi),为(wei)了保(bao)证(zheng)(zheng)精度(du),直线段势必很短,从而使得(de)(de)零(ling)件程序变得(de)(de)很长。基于此,计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)需要一个32位的(de)微处理器(qi),有(you)时(shi)甚至需要多个微处理器(qi),以完(wan)成高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)插补、高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)段处理和良好的(de)待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(Look Ahead)功能。为(wei)了能预先知道刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)路径(jing)以避免在拐角 处出现事故,计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)最(zui)好是具(ju)(ju)有(you)较多段加(jia)工(gong) NC代码轨(gui)(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)的(de)能力,这与司(si)机(ji)(ji)必须有(you)良好的(de)视野 范围(wei)才(cai)能高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)驾驶一辆汽车有(you)些类似(si)。 目前(qian)所有(you)较高(gao)(gao)水平的(de)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)都具(ju)(ju)有(you)待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)能力。所谓待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)轨(gui)(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong),就是计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)在控(kong)制加(jia)工(gong)的(de)同时(shi)扫描(miao)待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)代码,看(kan)刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)路径(jing)是否有(you)方(fang)向(xiang)(xiang)上(shang)的(de)突然改(gai)变,如(ru)果计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)发(fa)现前(qian)面(mian)必须改(gai)变进给方(fang)向(xiang)(xiang)时(shi),自动执行加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)(su)程序,以避免高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)中心偏离程序中规定的(de)切削加(jia)工(gong)路径(jing)。


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